Laser therapy for cancer
Laser therapy uses a very narrow, focused beam of light to shrink or destroy cancer cells. It can be used to cut out tumors without damaging other tissue.
Laser therapy is often given through a thin, lighted tube that is put inside the body. Thin fibers at the end of the tube direct the light at the cancer cells. Lasers are also used on the skin.
How Laser Therapy is Used
Laser therapy can be used to:
- Destroy tumors and precancerous growths
- Shrink tumors that are blocking the stomach, colon, or esophagus
- Help treat cancer symptoms, such as bleeding
- Treat cancer side effects, such as swelling
- Seal nerve endings after surgery to reduce pain
- Seal lymph vessels after surgery to reduce swelling and keep tumor cells from spreading
Lasers are most often used with other types of cancer treatment such as radiation and chemotherapy.
Some of the cancers laser therapy can treat include:
- Head and neck
Types of Laser Therapy
The most common lasers for treating cancer are:
- Carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers. These lasers remove thin layers of tissue from the surface of the body and the lining of organs inside the body. They can treat basal cell skin cancer and cancers of the cervix, vagina, and vulva.
- Argon lasers. These lasers can treat skin cancer and are also used with light-sensitive drugs in a treatment called photodynamic therapy.
- Nd:Yag lasers. These lasers are used to treat cancer of the uterus, colon, and esophagus. The laser-emitting fibers are put inside a tumor to heat up and damage the cancer cells. This treatment has been used to shrink liver tumors.
Benefits of Laser Therapy
Compared to surgery, laser therapy has some benefits. Laser therapy:
- Takes less time
- Is more precise and causes less damage to tissues
- Leads to less pain, bleeding, infections, and scarring
- Can often be done in a doctor's office instead of a hospital
The downsides of laser therapy are:
- Not many doctors are trained to use it
- It is expensive
- The effects may not last so the therapy may need to be repeated
Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
American Cancer Society website. Lasers in cancer treatment. www.cancer.org/treatment/treatments-and-side-effects/treatment-types/lasers-in-cancer-treatment.html. Updated May 4, 2020. Accessed December 6, 2021.
Garrett CG, Reinisch L, Fletcher KC. Laser surgery: basic principles and safety considerations. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Francis HW, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 59.
National Cancer Institute website. Lasers in cancer treatment. www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types/surgery/lasers-fact-sheet. Updated June 16, 2021. Accessed December 6, 2021.